The files listed below are sorted by the directory in which you will find them. At present, only the files which are included in Fall from Heaven 2 032 patch a are listed. There are many more files than this in the main Civilization BtS XML folders, but the ones not included simply have not been changed from the initial BtS versions.
Schema files are not listed individually because the precise layout does not warrant discussion. Instead there is a listing for All Schema Files which covers how to understand what you are seeing and how to deal with it.